Wednesday, March 21, 2018

Tributes to Stephen Hawking

Singularity Hub

Stephen Hawking: Martin Rees Look Back on Colleague’s Spectacular Success Against all Odds
(Perhaps this article along with the autobiographies of Frederick Douglass and Helen Keller should be on the recommended reading lists for young students.)


What you need to Know About Stephen Hawking’s Final Paper

A Smooth Exit from Eternal Inflation?
  1. W. Hawking, Thomas Hertog
Oxford Science Blog - (Example of Current Theoretical Physics)
The other side of the Big Bang

Barak Kol

Head of Hebrew University’s Racah Institute of Physics
It is common knowledge that Prof. Stephen Hawking was one of the greatest scientists of our time, as well as an inspiring instance of human spirit and humor in the face of illness and difficulty. It is perhaps less known that his single most scientific achievement, namely the theoretical discovery of Hawking radiation from black holes was intimately related to the ideas of the late Prof. Jacob Bekenstein from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 1972 Bekenstein, then a Ph.D. student at Princeton University, suggested that black holes might have properties of heat (more precisely entropy, known today as Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy). This idea was met with disbelief as scientists, including Hawking, thought that black holes absorb everything, yet nothing can escape them, and therefore their temperature would have to be the absolute zero.
Yet in 1974 it was Hawking who discovered theoretically that once the effects of quantum physics are taken into account a weak radiation must escape that black hole. This radiation is known as Hawking radiation and it is accompanied by a temperature of the black hole. In this way it was Hawking who established and confirmed Bekenstein’s earlier ideas and together they form the basis for Black Hole Thermodynamics, which is one of the pillars of contemporary theoretical physics. As this story illustrates, sometimes debate and even controversy, work towards a better and more united scientific understanding.

Monday, March 19, 2018

Justice by Robert Mueller and the FBI is Biased rather than Blind

Concerning all of the legal issues related to Hillary Clinton they tried not to make a case.
Against Trump they are being exceedingly aggressive.

National Review
The Trump Collusion Case Is Not Getting the Clinton Emails Treatment

“If the Justice Department is hell-bent on making a case, it plays an intimidating game of hardball. In July 2016, the Obama administration announced its decision not to prosecute Hillary Clinton for felony mishandling of classified information and destruction of government files. In the aftermath, I observed that there is a very aggressive way that the Justice Department and the FBI go about their business when they are trying to make a case — one profoundly different from the way they went about the Clinton emails investigation. There, they tried not to make the case.”

“Mueller succeeded in convincing a federal judge to force an attorney for Manafort and Gates to provide grand-jury testimony against them.”

“Interestingly, the jurist who rendered the 37-page memorandum opinion is Beryl A. Howell, who served for years as a senior Judiciary Committee adviser to the fiercely partisan Democratic Senator Pat Leahy (of Vermont) before being appointed to the bench by President Obama. Howell is now the district court’s chief judge. Why do I think that, in choosing to set up shop in Washington, Mueller and his team noted the district court’s local rule that vests the chief judge with responsibility to “hear and determine all matters relating to proceedings before the grand jury”? (See here, Rule 57.14 at p. 168.)”

“Compare that with the Justice Department’s treatment of the lawyers representing Mrs. Clinton and her accomplices. Actually, I shouldn’t really put it that way because . . . Mrs. Clinton’s lawyers were her accomplices.”